• Diet 4 MicroGut

    Microorganisms in foods and in humans: study of the microbiota and the related metabolome.

  • Diet 4 MicroGut

    Microorganisms in foods and in humans: study of the microbiota and the related metabolome.

  • Diet-Human health

    The human body houses a huge microbial ecosystem, including the intestinal and oral microbiota. Both these ecosystems, and, in particular, the intestinal one, are responsible for maintaining human health.

  • Diet-Microbiota relationship

    Diet is a reservoir of microbes and the feeding for human resident microorganisms, therefore, it is inevitably linked to diversity and functionality of the oral andintestinal microbiota.

  • Few information is available

    A cross-search for "human gut microbiota" and "health" in the ISI Web of Knowledge database, results in more than 550 hits, only in the last 5 years. Less than 10 hits come out combining the terms “vegetarians” and "human gut microbiota"

Created on 03 October 2015

The Mediterranean diet is characterised by high intake of fruit, vegetables, legumes, nuts and cereals; moderately high intake of fish; regular but moderate alcohol consumption; and low intake of saturated fat, red meat, and dairy products.  Most (88%) of the vegans, almost two thirds of the vegetarians (65%), and around a third (30%) of the omnivores consumed a diet with a high adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet.

The researchers found that levels of SCFAs were strongly associated with the quantity of fruit, vegetables, legumes, and fibre habitually consumed, irrespective of whether the person was vegan, vegetarian or omnivorous.  SCFAs have been linked to health promoting effects, including a reduced risk of inflammatory diseases, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Vegetarian and vegans were found to have gut bacterial compositions associated with long-term fibre intake. Specifically, Prevotella and Lachnospira, known as good fibre-degrading organisms leading to the production of SCFA, were more linked to plant-based foods, which may explain the higher levels of SCFA found in vegans, vegetarians and in individuals with high-level adherence to the Mediterranean diet.

On the other hand, levels of trimethylamine oxide (TMAO)—a compound that has been linked to cardiovascular disease—were significantly lower in the urine samples of vegetarians and vegans than they were in those of the omnivores. However the analysis showed that the more omnivores followed a Mediterranean diet, the lower were their TMAO levels.

TMAO levels were also linked to the prevalence of microbes associated with the intake of animal proteins and fat, including L-Ruminococcus (from the Lachnospiraceae family).  Eggs, beef, pork and fish are the primary sources of carnitine and choline, compounds that are converted by gut microbes into trimethylamine, which is then processed by the liver and released into the circulation as TMAO.

 http://gut.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/gutjnl-2015-309957

 

 
Created on 08 September 2015

In this study, the fecal microbiota of 153 healthy volunteers, recruited from four different locations in Italy, has been  studied by coupling viable counts, on different microbiological media, with ribosomal RNA Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (rRNA-DGGE). The volunteers followed three different diets, namely omnivore, ovo-lacto-vegetarian and vegan. The results obtained from culture-dependent and -independent methods have underlined a high level of similarity of the viable fecal microbiota for  the three  investigated diets. The rRNA DGGE profiles were very complex and comprised a total number of bands that varied from 67 to 64 for the V3 and V9 regions of the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Only a few bands were specific in/of all three diets, and the presence of common taxa associated with the dietary habits was found. As far as the viable counts are concerned, the high similarity of the fecal microbiota was once again confirmed, with only a few of the investigated groups showing  significant differences. Interestingly, the samples grouped differently, according to the recruitment site, thus highlighting a higher impact of the food consumed by the volunteers in the specific geographical locations than that of the type of diet. Lastly, it should be mentioned that the fecal microbiota DGGE profiles obtained from the DNA were clearly separated from those produced using RNA, thus underlining a difference between the total and viable populations in the fecal samples.

 
Created on 10 November 2014

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0112373

 

 

The salivary microbiota has been linked to both oral and non-oral diseases. Scant knowledge is available on the effect of environmental factors such as long-term dietary choices on the salivary microbiota and metabolome. This study analyzed the microbial diversity and metabolomic profiles of the saliva of 161 healthy individuals who followed an omnivore or ovo- lacto-vegetarian or vegan diet. A large core microbiota was identified, including 12 bacterial genera, found in .98% of the individuals. The subjects could be stratified into three ‘‘salivary types’’ that differed on the basis of the relative abundance of the core genera Prevotella, Streptococcus/Gemella and Fusobacterium/Neisseria. Statistical analysis indicated no effect of dietary habit on the salivary microbiota. Phylogenetic beta-diversity analysis consistently showed no differences between omnivore, ovo-lacto-vegetarian and vegan individuals. Metabolomic profiling of saliva using 1H-NMR and GC-MS/SPME identified diet-related biomarkers that enabled a significant discrimination between the 3 groups of individuals on the basis of their diet. Formate, urea, uridine and 5-methyl-3-hexanone could discriminate samples from omnivores, whereas 1- propanol, hexanoic acid and proline were characteristic of non-omnivore diets. Although the salivary metabolome can be discriminating for diet, the microbiota has a remarkable inter-individual stability and did not vary with dietary habits. Microbial homeostasis might be perturbed with sub-standard oral hygiene or other environmental factors, but there is no current indication that a choice of an omnivore, ovo-lacto-vegetarian or vegan diet can lead to a specific composition of the oral microbiota with consequences on the oral homeostasis. 

 

 

 

 

 

 
Created on 27 August 2014

The first results of the Diet4MicroGut project will be presented at the 24th International ICFMH conference, FOOD MICRO 2014, which will be held in Nantes, France, 1-4 September 2014.

http://www.foodmicro2014.org/

 

 

 

Oral Communications:

The role of vegetarian, vegan or omnivorous diet in shaping salivary microbiome

DE FILIPPIS Francesca, LA STORIA Antonietta, FERROCINO Ilario, LAZZI Camilla,

TURRONI Silvia, DI CAGNO Raffaella, ERCOLINI Danilo

 

 

Poster session:

Study of the fecal microbiota as affected by omnivore, vegetarian or vegan dietsthrough culture dependent and independent analysis

FERROCINO Ilario, DI CAGNO Raffaella, DE ANGELIS Maria, NEVIANI Erasmo, LAZZI Camilla, VANNINI Lucia, TURRONI Silvia and COCOLIN Luca

 

 

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